D'ar Sul daou a viz Here 2016.
Demat d'an holl
- Hugues de Kevelioc (1137 ou 1147-1181), Comte de Kevelioc.
Simon III de Montfort-l'Amaury épouse vers 1165 Amicie de Beaumont-le-Roger. Leurs enfants sont :
- Bertrade d'Évreux (morte en 1227) qui épousera en 1169 ou 1170 Hugues de Kevelioc,
- Amaury V de Montfort ou de Montford (mort en 1182),
- Guy de Montfort (1166-1228 ou 1229), Seigneur de Castres-en-Albigeois, de la Ferté-Alais, de Bréthencourt ou Béthencourt, de Tyr et de Sidon,
- Simon IV de Montfort dit le Macchabée (1168-25 juin 1218), Comte de Montfort, Vicomte de Béziers et de Carcassonne,
- Péronnelle ou Pétronille de Montfort (1170-1216), qui épousera Barthélemy de Roye, Grand chambrier de France
- Guyburge ou Guiburge de Montfort (né en 1185) qui épousera vers 1215 Guy Ier de Levis.
Hugues de Kevelioc épouse en 1169 ou 1170 Bertrade d'Évreux. Leurs enfants sont :
- Maud de Kevelioc ou de Chester (1171-1233),
- Ranulf ou Ranulph de Blundeville (vers 1172-1232), Comte de Richmond,
- Havise de Chester (morte en vers 1242).
Hugues de Kevelioc meurt en 1181.
Ranulph de Blundeville devient 6e comte de Chester, vicomte héréditaire de l'Avranchin et du Bessin,
En 1237, après la mort de John le Scot, le titre est racheté aux sœurs de Ranulf de Blondeville, gendre de Conan IV de Bretagne, par le roi Henri III, qui le donna à son fils Édouard.
Depuis 1301, le titre est généralement donné à l'héritier désigné du trône d'Angleterre. Depuis 1399, il est donné conjointement avec le titre de prince de Galles.
- 1071-1101 : Hugues d'Avranches († 1101) ;
- 1101-1120 : Richard d'Avranches (1094-1120). Fils du précédent.
- 1120-1129 : Ranulph le Meschin († 1129). Cousin germain du précédent.
- 1129-1153 : Ranulph de Gernon († 1153). Fils du précédent ;
- 1153-1181 : Hugues de Kevelioc (1147-1181). Fils du précédent ;
- 1181-1232 : Ranulph de Blondeville (1172-1232). Fils du précédent.
- 1232-1237 : John le Scot (v. 1207-1237), comte de Huntingdon. Neveu du précédent.
Tableau généalogique montrant le lien entre la mère de Hugues et la famille royale:
He is thought to have been born in Kevelioc in Monmouth in 1147. But he may have taken the name of the cwmwd of Cyfeiliog (in modern Powys) in the southern part of the Kingdom of Powys, Wales.
He was underage when his father's death in 1153 made him heir to his family's estates on both sides of the Channel. He joined the baronial Revolt of 1173–1174 against King Henry II of England, and was influential in convincing the Bretons to revolt. After being captured and imprisoned after the Battle of Alnwick, he finally got his estates restored in 1177, and served in King Henry's Irish campaigns.
In 1169 he married Bertrade de Montfort of Evreux, daughter of Simon III de Montfort. She was the cousin of King Henry, who gave her away in marriage. Their children were:
- Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester
- Matilda de Blondeville, aka Matilda (Maud) of Chester (1171–1233), married David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon
- Mabel of Chester, married William d'Aubigny, 3rd Earl of Arundel
- Agnes of Chester (1172–died 2 November 1247), married William de Ferrers, 4th Earl of Derby
- Hawise of Chester (1180–1242), married Robert II de Quincy
- Beatrix of Chester (1166– ), married Lord William Belward of Malpas
Hugh also had another daughter, Amice of Chester (1167– ), who married Ralph de Mainwaring. There is no record of Amice's mother or whether she was Hugh's wife or mistress. The issue of Amice's legitimacy has been subject to a longstanding dispute.
One letter from the Pope suggests that Llywelyn Fawr may have been married to an unnamed sister of Earl Ranulph of Chester in about 1192, but there appears to be no confirmation of this. If this was the case it could have been either Mabel or Hawise, or perhaps Amice, and the marriage would have had to have been annulled before any subsequent marriages.
Hugh of Kevelioc died 30 June 1181 at Leek, Staffordshire, England. He was succeeded by his son, Ranulf.
Hugh of Kevelioc (born 1147), 3rd Earl of Chester was also known as Hugh le Meschin. He succeeded to the titles of Vicomte d'Avranches and Earl of Chester on 16 December 1153. He joined the revolt against King Henry II in 1173, was captured and deprived of his Earldom, but was then restored in January 1177. He died in 1181, leaving a young heir (Ranulf of Blundeville) aged 9.
- Parents: The 2nd Earl (Ranulph De Gernon) and Maud of Gloucester, daughter of Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (otherwise known as Robert de Caen, the illegitimate son of Henry I of England.
- Spouse: In 1169 Hugh married Bertrade de Montfort of Evreux, daughter of Simon III de Montfort. She was the cousin of King Henry II, who gave her away in marriage.
- Ranulf de Blondeville, (born 1172) who succeeded as the 4th Earl of Chester
- Maud of Chester (1171-1233), married David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon as featured in Walter Scott's "The Talisman", and grandfather of Robert Bruce
- Mabel of Chester, married William d'Aubigny, 3rd Earl of Arundel
- Agnes of Chester (died November 2, 1247), married William de Ferrers, 4th Earl of Derby
- Hawise of Chester (1180-1242), married Robert II de Quincy
- A daughter, (whose name is unknown), whom some say was briefly married to Llywelyn the Great of Wales. There is some controversy here.
Hugh also had a (some claim illegitimate) daughter, Amice of Chester, (there is some complicated history here) who married Ralph de Mainwaring (Justice of Chester). The Cholmondeleys of Cholmondeley "trace their ancestry to William Le Belward, Lord of a moiety of the Barony of Malpas, who married Tanglust, the natural daughter of Hugh Kevelioc" - it isn't clear which daughter is meant. A mandate from King Henry the Second to Hugh Earl of Chester and "M the Countess" enjoins them without delay to give to the Abbot and Monks of Gloucester the rents which Ranulph Earl of Chester gave them in the mills of Oldney and of Tadwell:
- H Rex Angt & Dux Norm & Aquil & Com Andeg H Com Cestf & M Comitisse sat pcipio qd sn diloe & juste faciatis hafee Abfei & Monachis de Gloec reddit q s Comes Ran eis dedit i molendinis de Oldneio & de Tadewella sic carta sua testaf Et displicet m qd hoc n fecistis sic pcepi p alia brevia mea Et n fecitis vie mei vt Justic faciat ne in clamore apli9 audia p penuria recti T Th Cane apd Wigorn
The original from which the above is transcribed is in good preservation with a fine impression of the Great Seal appended thereto a small part only having been broken off. Its date is certainly in the early part of King Henry's reign as is tested at Worcester by Thomas a Becket then Archdeacon of Canterbury the King's Chancellor. The date of the mandate is fixed somewhere between 1155 and 1163 - most probably sealed in the year 1158 when the King was at Worcester and there crowned. It is probable that the "M Comitissa" was Matilda the mother of the Earl who survived until 1189 and who might have had some interest in the Earl's lands in Oldney in right of her dower. If the Countess was not that Matilda but the wife of Hugh Earl of Chester it would supply evidence that Hugh Earl had a prior wife to Bertred - a point of considerable interest in reference to the well known controversy around the legitimacy of Amicia. The bastardy of Amicia was asserted by Sir Peter Leycester and her legitimacy maintained by Sir Thomas Mainwaring of Peover. Sir Peter Leycester denied that Earl Hugh had any other wife than Bertrade, mother of Ranulf of Blundeville and of the four daughters who became coheirs of their brother.
Hugh de kevelioc (Town Hall Staircase)
Hugh de Kevelioc, (1147 – June 30, 1181), was the 3rd Earl of the second creation of the Earldom (and so the fifth to hold the title). He is thought (by some) to have taken his name from Kevelioc in Monmouth as his birthplace. Cyfeiliog was a small territory (cantref) in medieval Wales. The river Dyfi intersected the northwestern corner of it and formed part of its western border. Machynlleth and Tarfolwern are nearby towns. Others think that he was born in, and took the name of, Cyfeiliog in Merionethshire or Meirionydd, Wales. Hugh's arms are: "Azure, six garbs, or, three, two, and one" - this is three golden bundles of corn (garbs) arranged in rows of three two and one on a blue (Azure) background.
History records the donation of lands at Ticknall:
- Chief amongst their benefactors was Maud widow of Ranulph de Gernon. Between 1149 and 1161 with the consent of her son, Hugh, 5th Earl of Chester, she gave them the advowson of St Wystan, Repton, and the working of the quarry there, on condition that so soon as opportunity offered Calke should transfer its endowments to a new priory to be set up at Repton, and itself become simply a cell of its daughter house. About 1162 Hugh confirmed gifts by his father of the wood between Sceggebroc and Aldreboc and Little Geilberga, a culture between Aldreboc and Sudmude [south wood], the little mill of Repton and four bovates of land of Ticknall. He also confirmed gifts by Nicholas the priest of two bovates in Ticknall and the chapel of smisby, by Geva Ridel of s measure of land in Tamworth, and other gifts by his father of lands in Repton and fishing near Chester. The identity of Nicholas the priest is not known but Geva Ridal was the only daughter of Hugh d'Avranches, first Earl of the country palatine of Chester. There was a number of other mid twelfth century gifts to the church of land and the rights in the neighbourhood and in Sutton Bonnington, which Hugh did not confirm.
Hugh is also said to have granted his manor of Budworth together with a half share interest in the forestership of Mara (which included Delamere Forest) to Robert Grosvenor at some time in the 1150s. The bounds of Grosvenor's bailiwick were described in 1361 as being:
- from Stanford Bridge along the King's highway as far as Northwich, thence following the bounds of the forest as far as the Darley Brook, and thence following the Darley Brook as far as the bounds of Rushton, and then following the bounds of Rushton and Olton as far as Yemelegh Mill and from the mill following the bounds between Eaton and Alpraham as far as the town of Tarporley and then following the bounds of the said forest as far as Stanford Bridge.
Being born in 1147, Hugh would have been a minor at the time and one wonders just how real the grant of the forestership was!
Chester castle was temporarily in royal hands during the minority of Earl Hugh (1153–62). In 1157, Henry II received the homage of Malcolm IV, king of Scots, in Chester before invading north Wales. The "Chester Annals" record that in 1164 "justice was done on the Welsh hostages". In 1165 Henry II used Shrewsbury as his base but after the campaign visited Chester to meet the ships which he had ordered to harry Gwynedd. Shortly afterwards Chester appears to have been involved in a further attack, for in 1170 (or 1169) Hugh II was reported in the Chester Annals to have built a mound at Boughton out of the heads of Welshmen killed at the 'bridge of Baldert', possibly Balderton (in Dodleston), south of Chester.
- Hic natus Ranulphus III. filius Hugonis comes Cestrie. In hoc etiam anno interfecit Hugo comes Cestrie magnam multitudinem Walensium juxta pontem de Baldert de quorum capitibus factum unum de aggeribus apud Hospitalem infirmorum extra Cestriam. (This year Randle III., son of Hugh, earl of Chester, was born. In this year also Hugh, earl of Chester, slew a great multitude of Welshmen, near the bridge of Baldert, of whose heads one of the mounds at the hospital for the sick outside Chester is formed.)
The said hospital for the sick stood close by the site of St Giles Cemetery.
Revolt against the king
In 1173, (aged 26) Hugh stuck with family tradition and joined the baronial Revolt of 1173-1174 against Henry II. A leading figure in this revolt was Henry II's heir "Henry the Young King". Henry fell out with his father in 1173. Contemporary chroniclers allege that it was due to the young man's frustration that his father had given him no realm to rule, and that he felt starved of funds. The rebellion seems however to have drawn strength from much deeper discontent with his father's rule, and a formidable party of English and Norman magnates joined him.
- ..many powerful and noble persons, as well in England as in foreign parts, either impelled by mere hatred, which until then they had dissembled, or solicited by promises of the vainest kind, began by degrees to desert the father for the son, and to make every preparation for the commencement of war. The earl of Leicester, for instance, the earl of Chester, Hugh Bigot, Ralph de Fougeres, and many others, formidable from the amount of their wealth and the strength of their fortresses.
The civil war (1173–74) came close to toppling the king, and he was narrowly saved by the loyalty of a party of English court aristocracy and the defeat and capture of the king of Scotland. Hugh had chosen the losing side and lost Chester Castle and the rest of his lands when captured and imprisoned. While shuttled about somewhat he was finally placed in confinement at Caen after the Battle of Alnwick (1174) when William I of Scotland) was defeated.
The "Annales" records it as follows:
- mclxxiij Hic cepit Henricus tercius Rex Anglie filius Henrici Regis Anglie inquictare patrem suum juncto sibi Rege Francie cujus filiam acceperat in uxorem et comite Flandrensi et eorum auxiliis necnon et duobus comitibus Anglie, videlicet Hugone comite Cestrensi et Roberto comite Leicestrie. In hoc etiam anno captus est Hugo comes Cestrie apud Dol in Britanniam a Rege Henrico cum Radulpho de Feugis et aliis multis, et Robertus comes Lecestrie cum sua comitissa captus non longe a monasterio Sancti Edmundi et omnes Flandrenses qui cum eo venerant ut in Angliam guerram facerent sunt a comitibus Angliæ interempti vel vivi capti et retenti. (1173 At this time Henry III., king of England, son of Henry II., king of England, began to disquiet his father in concert with the king of France, whose daughter he had married, and the count of Flanders, and with their assistance, and that of two English earls, namely Hugh, earl of Chester, and Robert, earl of Leicester. In this year also Hugh, earl of Chester, was taken prisoner, at Dol in Brittany, by king Henry [II.] with Ralph de Feugeres and many others. And Robert, earl of Leicester, was taken prisoner with his countess not far from the monastery of S. Edmund, and all the Flemings who had accompanied him for the purpose of making war against England, were either killed by the English earls or captured alive and held prisoners.)
The same events are recorded in the Chronicle of Roger of Hoveden:
- On the following day, the king of England, the father, left Verneuil, and took the castle of Damville, which belonged to Gilbert de Tilieres, and captured with it a great number of knights and men-at-arms. After this, the king came to Rouen, and thence dispatched his Brabanters, in whom he placed more confidence than the rest, into Brittany, against Hugh, earl of Chester, and Ralph de Fougeres, who had now gained possession of nearly the whole of it. When these troops approached, earl of Chester and Ralph de Fougeres went forth to meet them. In consequence of this, preparations were made for battle; the troops were drawn out in battle array, and everything put in readiness for the combat. Accordingly, the engagement having commenced, the enemies of the king of England were routed, and the men of Brittany were laid pros. bate and utterly defeated. The earl, however, and Ralph de Fougeres, with many of the most powerful men of Brittany, shut themselves up in the fort of Dol, which they had taken by stratagem; on which, the Brabanters besieged them on every side, on the thirteenth day before the calends of September, being the second day of the week. In this battle there were taken by the Brabanters seventeen knights remarkable for their valour … . Besides these, many others were captured, both horse and foot, and more than fifteen hundred of the Bretons were slain.
- Now, on the day after this capture and slaughter, "Rumor, than which nothing in speed more swift exists," reached the ears of the king of England, who, immediately setting out on his march towards Dol, arrived there on the fifth day of the week, and immediately ordered his stone-engines, and other engines of war, to be got in readiness. The earl of Chester, however, and those who were with him in the fort, being unable to defend it, surrendered it to the king, on the seventeenth day before the calends of September, being the Lord’s Day ; and, in like manner, the whole of Brittany, with all its fortresses, was restored to him, and its chief men were carried into captivity. In the fortress of Dol many knights and yeomen were taken prisoners … .
So captured at Dol, Hugh is now placed in prison in Falaise.
- There fell in this battle more than ten thousand Flemings, while all the rest were taken prisoners, and being thrown into prison in irons, were there starved to death. As for the earl of Leicester and his wife and Hugh des Chateaux, and the rest of the more wealthy men who were captured with them, they were sent into Normandy to the king the father; on which the king placed them in confinement at Falaise, and Hugh, earl of Chester, with them.
Hugh was brought over to England...
- Immediately on this, he embarked, and, on the following day, landed at Southampton, in England, on the eight day before the ides of July, being the second day of the week, bringing with him his wife, queen Eleanor, and queen Margaret, daughter of Louis, king of the Franks, and wife of his son Henry, with Robert, earl of Leicester, and Hugh, earl of Chester, whom he immediately placed in confinement.
...but later shipped back to France and placed in confinement, first at Caen, and afterwards at Falaise. Hugh is mentioned (as an exception) in the treaty which ended the 1173-1174 revolt.
- ..But, as to the prisoners who have made a composition with our lord the king before this treaty was made with our lord the king, namely, the king of Scotland, the earl of Leicester, the earl of Chester and Ralph de Fougeres, and their pledges, and the pledges of the other prisoners whom he had before that time, they are to be excepted out of this treaty.
However, he had his estates restored in 1177.
4) Divisions administratives du Pays de Galles au Moyen-Age:
Le territoire du Pays de Galles médiévale était divisé en cantrefs, qui étaient eux-mêmes divisés en plus petits cymydau (singulier : cwmwd; breton : compot, kombod). Le nom « cantref » dérive de « Cant » (« cent ») et « tref » (« ville » en gallois moderne mais autrefois un établissement moins important). Le cantref était probablement l'unité de base, le cwmwd étant une division créé ultérieurement. Les cantrefs variaient considérablement en superficie ; la plupart étaient divisés en deux ou trois cymydau mais les plus grands (le « Cantref Mawr », littéralement « grand cantref » en Ystrad Tywi (aujourd'hui au Carmarthenshire) étaient divisés en 7 cymydau. Afin de donner une idée de la taille d'un cantref, l'île d'Anglesey était divisée en trois cantrefs, Cemais, Aberffraw et Rhosyr.
Les cantrefs étaient particulièrement importants pour rendre la justice selon la loi galloise. Chacun d'entre eux avait sa propre cour, qui était une assemblée des « uchelwyr », les principaux propriétaires terriens du cantref. Elle était présidée par le roi s'il était présent dans le cantref, ou par son représentant. En plus des juges on trouvait un clerc, un huissier et parfois deux plaideurs professionnels. La cour du cantref était compétente pour les crimes, la détermination des limites de terrain et les problèmes d'héritage. La cour du cwmwd récupéra par la suite la majeure partie des prérogatives de la cour du cantref, et dans certaines régions, les noms des cymydau sont aujourd'hui mieux connus que ceux des cantref dont ils faisaient partie.
Exemple du Cantref Eryri
- Kymwt Cyueilawc (Cwmwd Cyfeiliog)
- Kymwt Madeu
- Kymwt Uch Meloch
- Kymwt Is Meloch
- Kymwt Llan Gonwy (Cwmwd Llangonwy)
- Kymwt Dinmael (Cwmwd Dinmael)
- Kymwt Glyndyudwy (Cwmwd Glyndyfrdwy)
Eryri est le nom Gallois du mont Snowdon point culminant du Pays de Galles à 1085m d'altitude:
5) Cartes médiévale et moderne de Galles
Situation du Powys:
Situation du Powys:
Situation des divisions territoriales au Moyen-Age:
Le Cantref était une division territoriale galloise médiévale.
On a vu plus haut qu'il a existé dans le Cantref Eryri un Kymwt Cyueilawc (Cwmwd Cyfeiliog)
On voit ci-après qu'il a également existé un Cantref Cefeliog plus au sud au centre-ouest du Pays de Galles